THE POLITICS OF CLIMATE CHANGE CONSEQUENCE ON THE FIGHT AGAINST GLOBAL WARMING: A CASE STUDY OF NIGERIA
The burning issues of climate change and global warning remained one of the greatest challenges of 21st century. The study examines politics of climate change consequence on the fight against global warning, using Nigeria as a case study. The hypothesis that climate change is one of the greatest global challenges whose threat is not only global but also multi- dimensional, invincible ,unpredictable and transcend borders, successive government in Nigeria over the years have ensure comprehensive approach to issues of global warming and climate change were analyzed using chi-square technique. To further accomplish this task, a sample of 200 was taken by administering questionnaires and rate of return was 100%. The analysis revealed that government in Nigeria should increase the proactive approach to reduce the effect of climate change on Nigeria environment. The study therefore recommended that Nigeria state actors need to promote low carbon economy in Nigeria. The government in Nigeria should also intensify campaign and enlightenment in climate change. While the UN should sustained the drastic decision and encourage nations all around to reduce green house gas emission and get flaring, among other recommendations.
1.1 Background to the Study
Climate change is a global phenomenon, which affects continents, nations and peoples differently. It afflicts people in various depths and levels, at different times and phases of existence. There is no nation that is absolutely free from climate change. Climate change has had a profound effect on economic, socio, cultural, political, technological and even biological nature of man and plants in the global village (Oladipo, 2009).
According to Assy (2009), of all the attributes of climate change, global warming is the most outstanding. This phenomenon which is the gradual increase in the temperature of ocean and landmasses on the earth’s surface over time, has resulted in the drastic change in weather and climate pattern across the world from the slow but quite significant melting of the ice caps in the arctic and Antarctica regions, to the incessant incident of unprecedented flooding experienced in different part of the world etc. these and other disasters such as hurricanes in the Caribbean and parts of Africa, Asia and America , united states and Mexico, massive flooding in south east Asia, Europe, Africa, and forest fire s in the united states , part of Europe and Australia, excessively high temperature in parts of Africa , Asia and America , severe and bitter winter in the temperate regions, excessively intense rainfall in most part of Africa, south east Asia and parts of north and south America increasing rate of draught and desertification in most part of Africa content etc all are resultant effect of Globe worming ( IPCC report 2001).
Edeh and Eme (2014 opined that climate change has become a factor that has harped on and compounded the problems of the globe through environmental dimension. Moreover, it has been viewed by philosophers in the past passively as less harmful, but due to the current globalization of values, information and trends aided by science and technology, free movement of goods, services and information likening the world as a
Global village; certain problems and social changes as climate change has been viewed to of local contribution in different atomized but yet connected and global effects. Climate change has had itself to be presented as having a cites trephine and in parlance of the sustenance of the world biological and non- biological existence.
Assy (2009), viewed that climate change occur as a result of both internal variability within the climate system and the external factor (both natural and autogenetic). The influence of external factors on climate can be broadly compared using the concept of irradiative force. A positive irradiative forcing such as that produce. By increasing concentration of green use gases, tends to worm the surface. A negative irradiative forcing on the other hand arising from an increase in some types of aerosols (microscope airborne particles) tends to cool the surface. Natural factors such as explosive voltage activity can also cause irradiative forcing through its impact is less service than those caused by human activity though green house.
Akinyosoye (2006) opined that a large number of scientific and government organization have agreed that global warming is caused by man-n made increase in green house gases, which include carbon dioxide, hydropluorocarborns (HFCs) and perfluordcarbons (PFCS). These gases sit in the earth’s atmosphere absurdly the suns radiation. Current levels and at 370 parts per million volumes (PPMV), up from 280 ppmv 100 years ago. It is not one major world vide change that most people do not take into account in the economy. Smith (2010) stressed that some people benefit financially from global warming while other people suffer from the adverse effect of global warning. Some compares that benefit financially are those that are in the higher land that will not become flooded those that can easily adapt to the needs of the earth and of earth’s population, and people whose job. It is to study the environment. Green companies are already reaping benefits from global warming as people are trying to buy products they do not hurt the environment when they are made.
On the contrary Ayinde et al (2010) emphasized that many businesses and types of jobs become obsolete and garlicky go bankrupt. Those who go bankrupt due to global warming will crumble because they were in the wrong area could not adapt quickly enough to the changing needs of the world or their job is not possible any more.
At present human kinds dependence on carbon based energy is causing global warming and climate change is accelerating more rapid and dangerous, than anticipated even predicated by scientists. The 2007 united nations report based on the work of ( 2000) scientists predicated that Africa and sub- Saharan Africa which included Nigeria would suffer most from drought agricultural change , rising in sea level , threatening coastal areas and the speed of tropical pests and diseases ( UN report 2007).
The effect of global warming are also felt here in Nigeria. The rapid rate of desertification in the northern fringes of the country is a cause for concern. Areas that were once covered by vegetation have been engulfed by the rapidly advancing threats of the Sahara. Same also goes for the coastal fringes with the Atlantic Ocean rising at a rapid rate with consequences being beach recession as a rescues being beach recession as a result of coastal erosion. The bar beach and the entire pictorial Island once for plunge from the Atlantic are now competing for space with the surging waves of the ocean. There is a growing fear of the fact that this and other coastal areas of the country would one day be completely submerged by the sea. The vulnerability of the Niger delta region of the country has been demonstrated by the devastating effect of pollution and land depredation base on the activity of oil companies operating in that oil companies operating in that part.
Hence it is of paramount to understand the politics of climate change consequence on the fight against global warming, with a focus on Nigeria. Though the Nigerian government has commendably being in the fore front in the campaign against climate change and global warming, more needs to be done in the area of environmental sensitization. Lack of total enforcement of environmental laws, ignorance and some traditional beliefs have continued to be obstacles to environmental sustainability.
1.2 Statement of Research Problem
The fight against global warming g has been replete with genuine interest on the one hand and intrigues on the other. Thus fight has unfortunately been over wheel melded by this intrigues and politicization by different interest groups, especially some of the economically developed countries of the world which have tried by all means to ensure that their economic interests are protected even if ,it means going against some international protocol to curb global warning and climate changes.
The argument behind this uncompromising stance by the developed nation on the one hand and the won commitment of the developing nations on the other stamps from political and economics. While the developed nations argue that the cost of carbon divide reduction would be too high to bear. The developing nations Nigeria on the other hand are keen to ensure an accelelerated rate of development which is equally dependent on carbon- inducing avenges. the while it took the developed nations quite a time and resources to developed their economies at the expense of many factors including the world’s climate the developing countries need time and resources to develop their own economies so as to meet up with the developed world. Hence any attempt to limit this pace or development through embargo on carbon emission would amount to deprivation of the industrial base of such countries and would therefore prolong the rate of dependency on these industrial nation and further lead to economic slavery. There should therefore be and of waiver for them they argue.
While this argument rape on and different position taken the fact remain that the state of the world’s climate in continued to deteriorate over the years and at an alarming rate. However what is clear in that there are fears associated with it. Fear of national catastrophe or food insecurity and of technology change as well as the human security and other socio- economic impact that can lead to human annihilation. Perhaps that is why the climate change and economic implication has become a major concern to global governed institution national government and civil society around the world. For Nigeria, which often not only speak for herself but also for Africa climate change poses a specific challenge to its terming population of about 170 million? The need therefore for a comprehensive approach to issues of global warning by the government becomes pertinent i. e to tackle ecological and environmental problems in the country as an assurance that the fight against climate change and global warming is really in progress.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study basically are to:
I. Examines The Issues Of Climate Change In Nigeria.
II. Identify Significant Changes Brought By Climate Change On Nigeria.
III. Address Politics Of Climate Change As It Affects The Fight Against Global Warning.
IV. Bring To Focus Suggestion And Appropriate Recommendations To Sustain The Fight.
1.4 Research Questions
The research questions would guide the researcher on what to do as well as how to go about the research work. The research questions will include this following:
I. What is the impacts and biting effect of climate change in Nigeria?
II. What are the ecological problems, which have direct link to climate change?
III. If so much effort has been made by the Nigeria Government campaign against climate change and global warming, why are Nigerians still largely indifferent?
IV. Are relevant agencies responsible for the regulations and control of environmental regulations and control of environmental abuse strategically empowered to tackle these problem?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The research hypotheses that will guide the study are as follows:
1 Hi: that climate change is one of the greatest global challenges of the 21st century whose threat is not only global but also multi dimensional invisible unpredictable and transcends borders.
Ho: that climate change is not one of the greatest global challenges of the 21s century whose treat not global non multidimensional non invisible, but predictable and neither Transcend borders
2. Hi: successive garment in Nigeria over the years have ensure comprehensive approach to issues of global warming and climate change
Ho: successive government in Nigeria over the years have failed to ensure comprehensive approach to issues if global warning and climate change
1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study
To conduct an effective research in Nigeria is always a herculean task, owing to people attitudinal disposition towards the release of information. The study focuses on the politics of climate change consequence on the fight against global warning with Nigeria as the case study
The cost of financing the research work is high and there is invited fund available for the research work.
1.7 Significance of the Study
Achieving significant result in rescuing global warning often hinges on what is done, how it done when it is done and whom it is targeted at. It is obvious from several studies that climate change is impacting negatively on the environmental. It therefore requires concerted effort by all to contribute to the success of this all – important but elusive goal. Such efforts can only be meaningful if it stems from an empirical study in order to support the government to realize the global lofty objective of fighting global warning.
I.The study is expected to be a concerted effort to identify articulate and highlight the existence, the causes and effects of climate change
II.It is a guest to streamlining climate change measure and approach towards making them more potent.
III.The study is also expected to be benefit to a number of groups especially stakeholders of climate change and global warning reduction effort such as non government organization and community based group would be encourage to continual the fight against global warning
IV.The research is expected to be part of data bank for operators as well as policy makers in the fight against global warning
V.It will arouse the interest of student to conduct more research in this field of study
1.8 Research Mythology
Both primary and secondary data were used in the study. The primary data used were the questionnaire administer, tend commented for analysis. The secondary data were dewed from various published data in books, newspaper, magazine, articles and archive records.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Politics: The articulation and aggregassion of interest through bar gaming and compromise
Climate Change: This is a pattern of change affecting global or regional climate conditions
Global Warming: This palpable increase in global temperature that cause the atmosphere to be warmer
Globalization: Is a process of creation a global market place, for interconnection and facilitate dependence.
Development: The progressive movement that encompass position change
Mitigation and Adaptation Measures: mitigation is the slowing down of global warning adaptation is deeply with the exciting damage or efforts of climate change.
Global Warming: This is a gradual reduction in the amount of global direction irradiance of the earth’s surface. The main cause of this dimming is an aerosols’ produced by volcanoes and pollutants
Poverty: Is state where an individual is not able to cater adequately for his / her basic needs
1.10 Organization of the Study
The study is organized into five chapters the first chapter deals with the basis induct of the study, while second chapter receive the excising literature relevant from the study the chapter is concluded with a theoretic framework
Chapter three focuses on the research methodology,
While also chapter four focuses on presentation and analysis of data.
Chapter five is about summary conclusion and recommendations.