ABSTRACT: The study examined the impact of rapid urban growth on the socio – economic development in Nigeria, using the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC) as a case study. According to the Nigerian National Economic Empowerment Development strategy (2004) the rate of urban growth in Nigeria is one of the fastest in the world. It is against this background that the need for this research project work is undertaken purposely to find out the effects of rapid urban growth on socio-economic development of Abuja Municipal Area Council. Inn order to achieve these goals, the research adopts survey design and questionnaire was used as an instrument for collection of data. Analysis was done using simple percentages method of data analysis. After careful analysis and interpretation of data collected. It was found that rapid urban growth has negative and positive effects on socio- economic development of AMAC.The urban population related to the rate of urbanization due to rural – urban migration, which affect access to quality education, employment, health care delivery and healthy environment.An interesting finding of the study is that the primary factor for the rapid urban growth in AMAC within short period of time is migration. The consequence of this rapid urban growth and population rise with in a short period is that of infrastructural facilities and services are grossly inadequate to cater for the population. The study reveals that there is inadequate good quality housing, poor waste management facilities, inadequate electric power supply, inadequate good quality domestic water supply, inadequate and unaffordable health care facilities, poor environment health and traffic poor environment health and traffic, congestion in the municipal. The study therefore recommends that the Abuja Municipal Area Council Administration to embark on urban removal. Adequate infrastructural facilities and services should be provided the resident. Mechanism for periodic review and upgrading should be put in place to ensure a qualitative built urban environment, with adequate resources and facilities to support a sustainable healthy living and economic progress of the inhabitants of the council service.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page - - - - - - - - - - -i
Certification - - - - - - - - - -ii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - -iii
Acknowledgment - - - - - - - - -iv
Abstract - - - - - - - - - -v
Table of content - - - - - - - - -vi
1.1 Background to the study - - - - - - -1
1.2 Statement of the problem - - - - - - -3
1.3 Objectives of the study - - - - - - -3
1.4 Research Hypothesis - - - - - - -4
1.5 Significance of the study - - - - - - -4
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study - - - - -5
1.7 Definition of Terms - - - - - - -5-6
1.8 Organization of the study - - - - - - -6
LITERATURE REVIEW AND THEORETICAL FRAME WORK
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - -
2.1.1 Review of related literature - - - - - -
2.1.2 Rapid Urban Growth and Socio – Economic Development -
2.1.3 Nigeria Federal Capital City, Abuja - - - - -
2.1.4 Abuja Municipal Area Council, study Area - - - -
2.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - -
METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - -
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - -
3.3 Sources of Data Collection - - - - - -
3.4 Study population - - - - - - - -
3.5 Sampling Techniques - - - - - - -
3.6 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - -
3.7 Administration of instrument and procedure - - - -
3.8 Method of Data Analysis - - - - - - -
DATA ANALYSIS, PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1 Introduction - - - - - - - -
4.2 Data Presentation and Analysis - - - - - -
4.3 Test of Hypothesis - - - - - - - -
4.4 Discussion of findings - - - - - - -
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Summary- - - - - - - - - -
5.2 Conclusion - - - - - - - - -
5.3 Recommendation - - - - - - - -
BIBLIOGRAPHY - - - - - - - - -
APPENDIX - - - - - - - - -
APPENDIX - - - - - - - - -
APPENDIX - - - - - - - - -
1.1 Background To The Study
The relationship between rapid urban growth and socio-economic development is more apparent generally in Africa and in Sub-Sahara Africa in particular. Nigeria, like any other developing countries, and Abuja the Federal Capital City inclusive are faced with threat of increasing population known as “Urban explosion”. According to Robert (1995), the towns are getting bigger and more numerous; and an even increasing proportion of the population is concentrating in them. The population explosion, which out faces or outgrows resources, can “explode in suffering, explode in violence and explode in humanity”. Andrew (1994) maintain that rapid urban growth has created gigantic problems in major cities and metropolis, which have been manifested in political, social, economic and psychological occurring all over the states and countries at large.
According to Cohen (2006), in the last 50years, developing countries have experience rapid and unprecedented urban growth due largely to industrialization and changes in the global economy. Ejaro and Abubakar (2014) observe that the physical rapid growth of urban areas is as a result of rural migration even urban concentration into cities. It largely occurs because of the movement of people from community concerned chiefly or solely with agriculture; to other communities generally largely whose activities are primarily centered in government, trade, manufacture, or allied interests. It is also seen as the movement of populations from rural to urban areas, and the resulting increasing proportion a population that resides in urban, rather than rural areas.
However, there has been a phenomena increase urban growth rate in the developed countries over the last fifty years with an average of 2.75 percent, while the growth rate in developing countries on average for the same period states around 6 percent. Nigeria’s urban population has been growing at a rate which exceeds 6.5 percent and Lagos and Abuja in particular grew by 5.68 between 1999 – 2005. This growth rate is not matched by growth in other economic indices (Otto 2007).
According to the UN state of the world population 2007 report, sometime in the middle of 2007, the majority of people worldwide were living in towns of cities for the first time in history; this is referred to as the arrival of the “Urban Millennium” or the “tipping point”. In regard to future trends, it is estimated 93% of urban growth occur in developing nations, with 80% of urban growth occurring in Asia and Africa (Ankerl, 1986; UNFPA, 2007).
Ejaro ad Abubakar (2014) notes that rapid urban growth in African countries reflect substantial migration to cities from rural areas and also natural population increase through increased births over death among city resident. They argue that of the two major sources of urban population growth, in some countries, natural increase plays the greater role while in some others migration from rural areas contributes more. Cincotta and Eugelman (1987) observe that some cities are growing two or three times faster than the country’s overall population, reflecting massive migration to such cities.
Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, there are around 400 cities in the world with population over a million people, 75% of which are in low and middle income countries. The population increase in urban areas is mostly occurring in the developing countries of Latin America, East Asia and the pacific, South Asia, central Asia, middle East and North Africa and the Sub-Sahara Africa. While it as being projected that 17 of the world’s 20 largest cities are to be found in the developing countries (Dogan and Kasarda, 1989).
Otto (2007) assert that urban growth is one of the most pervasive phenomena issues occurring in many developing countries in general and Nigeria in particular but the rapidity of urban growth poses grave consequence for socio-economic development, which is yet to be fully grasped. According to the NEEDs document, (2004), the rate of urban growth in Nigeria is one of the highest in the world. Indeed Nigeria like a number of other developing countries, especially South East Asian countries, face formidable urbanization challenges then the developed countries face today.
According to the United Nation 2009 World population prospect which projected Africa to exceed 1.7 billion people (and it may already have) and could reach up to 2 billion people by 2050, Seubbotime and Sheran (2002) argue that this makes Africa the fastest growing continent and Africa’s rapid growth will also shift and global population balance.However, despite Africa’s rapid population growth, its socio-economic development remains stagnant. Population growth and urbanization. Rich countries are urban countries, as No country has ever reached high income levels with low urbanization (Ishaya and Bala, 2014).
Agboola (2005) notes that what is ironic and confounding, however, is that the urbanization process in the more developed countries took many decades, permitting a gradual emergence of economic, social and political systems o tackle the problems of transformation. But the pattern of urban agglomerations in the less developed countries are occurring more rapidly against a background of higher population growth, less developed economic, social and political systems.
This process of urbanization and city growth in developing countries has been described by Hartshorne (1992) cited in Agboola (2005) as “false urbanization”. According to him, it is false urbanization in the sense that the process is primarily driven by demographic forces, particularly rural – urban migration, rather than economic and industrial forces. While, the challenges to this false urbanization include, high unemployment, environmental degradation, deficiencies in urban services and inadequate housing, deterioration of existing infrastructure, inaccessibility to key resources, social vices, crime and violence (IHDP, 2005).
Falade (2005) argue that there is a negative relationship between un-controlled and unplanned rapid urban growth and socio-economic development. Rapid urban growth, if left unplanned as per the experience of many developing countries, often leads to socio-economic woes and increase in poverty, crime and insecurity in towns and cities. According to him, one of the continent’s main developmental challenges for the two decades of this millennium would be how to successfully manage its urban growth for substance economic development and social emancipation.
The links between population and development have always been seen within the context of population and resources. The visualization of population growth this tends to be obscured by the mystique and sentiment which surrounds the phenomenon. But whatever we feel about urban growth. We are obliged to acknowledge that they are significant factor in our social and economic development. Thus, the focus of this project work intends to diagnose the impact of rapid urban growth on Nigeria, a case study of Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC).
1.2 Statement of the Problem.
The Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria experience an annual growth rate of 9.28%, annually as against the economic growth rate of 4.8% (Ejaro, 2009). This rapid urban growth has raised several challenges for the socio-economic development of the six Area Council of which Abuja Municipal Area Council is most affected by this.
The influx of people into Abuja raised many problems. The immediate needs of the people are water, food, clothing and shelter other problems include unemployment, over population and over crowing, illiteracy, pollution, criminal behaviours like picking pocket, armed robbery, drug use and trafficking and 419 activities among other anti – social behavior that came as a result rural – urban migration and its implication in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC).
As people move to AMAC, if the number of houses and jobs does not grow with the increase in population, rooms become very expensive and different to get, and jobs become very hard to get leading to poor socio-economic development of Abuja Municipal Area Council. Most people who came to Abuja to look for jobs mostly reside in the satellite town that AMAC administered, and when they fail to obtain any, they become a burden either in their relation living in the area or they resort to immoral or criminal practices in order to survive.
Thus, the major problem statement therefore is:
§ Why is the Abuja Municipal Area Council Authority not always ready and willing to commit resources into socio- resources into socio- economic development programmes to matched urban growth.
§ What has been the level of performance measure by level of and quality of policy implementation of Abuja Municipal Area Council vis-à-vis the urban renewal projects.
Keeping in view of the above facts, it becomes necessary to provide answer to the following questions:
(i) Does rapid urban growth lead to poor socio-economic development?
(ii) Has the Abuja Municipal Area Council authority any adequate personnel with suitable skills?
(iii) Is the present financial status of Abuja Municipal Area Council good enough to cater for the urban growth project?
(iv) Is the prevailing circumstance in Nigeria conducive to discourage rural-urban migration to Abuja?
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary intent of the study is to explore the implication of rapid urban growth and socio – economic development in Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC). In order to achieve this aim, the study objectives are as follows:
i. To examine whether rapid population growth and economic development in AMAC is determined by rural – urban migration and natural increase.
ii. To ascertain if over- population in AMAC is negatively affecting the people’s socio-economic development.
iii. To understand whether unemployment and other anti-social activities are influenced by rapid urban growth and socio – economic development in AMAC.
iv. On the basis of the problems so identified, suggested measure to enhance improvement will be provided.
1.4 Research Hypothesis
Basically the study hypothesis, thus
(HO): Inadequate planning for rapid urban growth impact negatively on socio economic development of AMAC.
(HA): The frequency of Adequate Planning for rapid urban growth has no affect on the socio-economic development of AMAC.
1.5 Significance of the Study
It is hoped that, the academic research will be of immense value and guide to the Abuja Municipal Area Council, administration as to which approach to mitigate against challenge of rapid urban growth to adopt; and how to impact it to accomplish the objective of positive socio-economic.
This embodiment of the research literature is a compendium of ideas, facts and figure for development economic resources person, policy makers and social management scholars as well as research students who are in search of knowledge for advancement.
It is a hall mark if records and data bank for government agencies, private business and non – governmental organization within the public and private sector in Nigeria and beyond.
It has provided solution to the problems association with rapid urban growth and socio-economic development and indeed made recommendations on what to be done with the challenges to rapid population growth and this I hope will be great benefit to our society.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
This study is an examination of the impact of rapid urban growth in Nigeria using Abuja Municipal Area Council as a case study. Also the issues raised in the research cannot be said to be completely treated in the scope and content because of the following limitations:
i. Inadequate Materials: In that the available materials ate limited i.e library.
ii. Resource: The financial resource is another problem i.e money.
iii. Time factor: Is another limitation to the research work because the time is too short.
iv. Internet Problem: The internet is another limitation to this network problem and other website demand for many before the information could be access.
v. Limitation in terms of intellectual ability or experience particularly in the area of research.
vi. Also some materials were not release by the Abuja Municipal Area Council and the Federal Capital Development Authority because of security reason.
1.7 Definition of Terms
This aspect of the study attempts to define the major operational terms as contained in the topic of this project research. These terms are:
IMPACT: Hornby (1979), define impact as “a very strong effect or impression”.
The meaning of impact that is adopted here is the one given by Ewache (1998) thus: “impact is a positive impression or position mark which make a particular thing to have maximum advantage”.
DEVELOPMENT: The qualitative and quantitative change in the structure, composition and performance of the forces of production (Karl Marx, 1971).
ECONOMY: This is the relationship between production, trade, and the supply of money in a particular country in region.
RAPID URBANIZATION: This is the manner in which population change from rural life pattern to those of city dwellers.
ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: This refer to describing both the quantitative measure of governing economy as well as the social, political and other changes that lead to growth.
SUSTAIN DEVELOPMENT: This refers to development that could last for measurable time without consequences on the environment and human existence.
GROWTH: This means the measurable attribute of development in terms of quantitative aspects.
SOCIO- ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: This means the progress recorded in the well being of human society.
POPULATION GROWTH: This is the change in population over time in terms of number of any species per unit of time for measurement.
1.8 Organization of the Study
Chapter one, which is the introduction, includes; a general background to the study. Statement of the Research Problem, objectives of the study, Research Hypothesis, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms, and organization of the study.
Chapter two, which is the literature Review and theoretical framework, consist of introduction and review of all that exist about the study. Chapter three captures the research methodology for the study. Chapter four contains: Data Analysis, Presentation and interpretation of all results. Chapter five, being the last chapter of this study simply captures; the summary, conclusion and recommendations.