Wednesday, 20 July 2016



The study sought to determine the effect of day school system on academic performance of senior secondary students in Benue State, with a particular reference to Otukpo Local Government Area. The instrument used for this data collection was 20 item questionnaire administered to a sample of 100 students’ parents and teachers in the four selected senior secondary schools in town. Random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. Simple percentage was used in analyzing the three research questions. From the analysis, the findings showed that inadequate facilities in school cause students poor academic performance also students in day and boarding system perform the same in academic. Some problems of day school system are also identified. Ways of curbing this trend are mentioned which includes school system by setting up a committee to re-organize the total functioning of the system, provision of instructional materials and infrastructural facilities and teachers conditions of service to be enhanced. Based on the findings, recommendations were made, government should encourage the day secondary school system by being involved in its operations.


Title page
Approval page
Table of contents

Background of the study
Statement of the problem
Purpose of the study
Research questions
Significance of the study
Scope of the study
Operational Definition of Terms

2.1    Introduction
2.2    Theoretical/conceptual framework
2.3    Empirical study
2.4    Summary  

3.1    Introduction
3.2    Research Design
3.3    Population
3.4    Sample and Sampling
3.5    Instrumentation
3.6    Validation of Instrument
3.7    Method of Data Collection
3.8    Method of Data Analysis


4.1    Introduction
4.2    Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation
4.3    Research Questions
4.4    Discussion of Findings

5.1    Introduction
5.2    Summary
5.3    Recommendations
5.4    Conclusions
5.5    Limitations
5.6    Suggestions for further studies

1.1    Background of Study
To start with, before the introduction of formal and western system of education in Nigeria, there existed the traditional form of education, the various people train their youths in traditional education system for transmission of such knowledge to the next generation. This was based on unwritten curriculum and was more or less a responsibility as parents, relatives and all the elders in the society were involved. It was to shape the all-round development of the youths. The arrival of the missionaries brought in another idea of formal education and boarding system of education. To Fafunula (1974), most of the early schools were located in “missionaries’ compounds and church premises” and that some parents insisted on being paid by the missionaries if they were to lose their children to mission to due. Also, according to Fafunula (1974), government established schools which were boarding schools system. But later the government established day schools to carter for the product of the Universal Primary Education (UPE) programme in compliance with the provision in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2004). Due to the high cost of the boarding system, Government later established day school system to carter for the less privileged and to ensure that all attend secondary school.

Boarding school is a school where some pupils study and live during the school years with their fellow students and possibly teachers or administrators. The word boarding is used in the sense of bed and board i.e. loading and meals. Some boarding schools have day and return off-campus to their families in the evening.
Many independent (private) schools in the Common Wealth of Nations are boarding schools. Boarding school pupils (a.k.a boarders) normally return home during the school holiday and often, weekend but in some cultures may spend the majority of the childhood and adolescent life away from their families. Some schools in Otukpo Local Government Area operate boarding and day school system like St. Francis College, Jesus College but were later fully converted to a boarding school system. The reason for this conversion is to enable the school administrators to fully take control of their students and to control some habits in them. This policy by the school management leads to decline in the numbers of students’ population. Also, there are school in Otukpo Local government area that operate SINGLE BOARDING SYSTEM LIKE St. Francis College, (male), St. Annes secondary school (female) and Government Model Otukpo, that operate only on male students. Equally, schools like Wesley High School Otukpo and Jesus College operate mixed school boarding system where the hostels or dormitories are separated from each others.

On the other hand, day school system is the system of schooling where arrangements are made for school pupils to reside outside the school campus. They are made to go and return to the school on daily basis at fixed hours or the day. It also means that system of schooling which provides accommodations and other facilities for the welfare of the students either by the government or proprietors but do not provide for the students. The students are made to feed themselves. Dogara (1988) looks at day school as the type of schooling whereby students leave school immediately after school hours to their homes each day. According to the National Policy on Education (1981) is the type of system that guarantees equal rights of education to every Nigerian child.

Taiwo (1981), Day schooling is that system of school which help to reduce cost involving parents in the education of the children and enable the children develop “roots” in their culture.
According to Aku (1981) however, the purpose of the day school system is to educate every child in a manner that will enable him/her find a worthy place in the society. In the boarding school system, the children were brought together from diverse cultural and ethnic backgrounds to learn together, thereby, enhancing national consciousness and solidarity. Academic exchanges took place among students through interaction in societies and clubs such as debating society, science society, sports and games musical society etc.  

To ensure that students pursue academic work with vigor, they attend preparatory classes and are involved in extra-curricular activities ranging from music, squash courts, swimming pool, and theaters. Most boarding schools have a light out time when no talking was permitted. A number of senior teaching advisors each of whom took quasi-parental responsibility for some students residing in their houses. A house keeper often known as Matron Assists them in the management of the hostels, academic exchange matters are handled by a house tutor. Prefects and monitors are appointed among students. They enjoy limited authority and help in controlling students. The progress records of students kept in folders enabled all stakeholders to have a clear and complete picture of progress with regards to attendance, achievement including scores, occupational interests and plans, participation in school activities etc.
Generally, the boarding school system has some advantages like in Nigeria when secondary school were few, boarding school were safer places for students that come from far places especially those who could not feed for themselves. And by housing students from different ethnic and socio-cultural backgrounds, national unity was enhanced as students learnt much about the culture of other outsider groups. Pupils generally needed permission to go outside defined school bounds. This particular rule helped to regulate the movement of students. Learning was ensured through preps and students time to make use of facilities such as laboratories, libraries and so on. Given the many advantages of the boarding school, the system was cherished in Nigeria and maintained in the post-independence era. The number of schools and students enrollment was however small. The introduction of the new national policy of education policy was that “primary education should be free and Universal Education should be made compulsory (Yoloye, 1993). Abo (2007) in her assessment attributed financial facilities and expansion of the schools. She stated that this was what induced the Federal Military Government to introduce what is known as Day School system, boarding system and mixed school system. The day school system as the stakeholders perceived, it was prone to many disadvantages. One of such disadvantages is that students will not devote time to their studies. Their control would similarly be difficult.

More so, “the distance students have to trek to school and this will have negative impact on their learning due to lateness, absenteeism, listen well and try to be an example to other (UNESCO, 2006). After long distance of trekking the student become tired and when they reach the school, they usually sleep in the class while lessons are going on. It was considered by stakeholders that the disadvantages associated with day schooling will have serious effects on academic performance particularly in gaining and writing skills, and passing with good grades. Practice they say, makes perfect. As students attend classes from their homes, many home chores interfere with their studies because they spend more time in running errands, looking after siblings or hawking to augment the family’s pulse. These activities make them devote less time to studies and this reflects in scores they get in examinations.
1.2    Statement of the Problem
Looking at the Day school system in Benue State, there are doubts as to whether the day school system students are actually performing better than the boarding school system in our senior secondary school because of some intervening variables. Many of the students hardly have time to read at home, while those in the school may have the problem of proper supervision of the students some times.
In view of these, the problem of the study is therefore to find out the extent to which day school system affect the academic performance of senior secondary school students in all subjects.
1.3    Purpose of the Study
The purpose of the study was to find out the effect of day school system on academic performance of Senior Secondary School (SSS) students in Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State.
1.4    Research Questions
        The research questions for this work include:
i.     Does day system have any effect on students’ academic performance?
ii.    Why do people avoid boarding system of education?
iii.  What are the problems associated with day school system.
1.5    Hypothesis
        One hypothesis is formulated for analysis at 0.05 level of significance.
There is no significant difference in academic performance between students in boarding and day school systems.
1.6    Significance of the study
The findings of this study may be significant in many ways, especially to researches, parents who are concerned about the education of their children among others. This study will also serve as a source of reference to any person who may undertake similar research study.

More so, the research findings may be of importance to government also. Based on the findings of this research work, it will help the government to see the type of system of education which is good for the students and try to initiate a policy to help remedy the problem of poor academic performance of senior secondary students.
1.7    Scope of the Study
This study is limited to selected schools in Otukpo Local Government Area of Benue State. Subject like chemistry is chosen for this research work because of its relevance to our society and also is one of the core science subjects taught in secondary school that require much practical work especially at S.S.C.E level.

Also, Otukpo Local Government is chosen as a case study among the 23 Local Government Areas of Benue State.

1.8    Operational Definition of terms
Day school system: is an institution where children are giving educational instruction during the day and after which children return to their homes; that is a school without boarding facilities that holds classes during the day.
Boarding system: A system of school where students are housed and fed as well as taught in the school compound.

Academic performance: Korima (2006) has stated that good academic performance relater to learners acquired reading and writing skills, receive good grades or marks and all pass examination.

No comments:

Post a Comment