Saturday, 16 July 2016


 Political parties are important institutional component of liberal democracy and success of liberal democracy and successful electoral machinery and   processes. Parties produce the candidate   set the parameters of issues and political agenda within which elections are to be contested and are further more expected to perform these duties democracy and the challenge of political parties in Nigeria and examination of the fourth republic, with keen interest in the All Progress Congress (APC) adventure in the Nigeria political spices. In the studies it observe that political parties are a form or human organization concerned with the expression of popular preferences, political choices and a means of controlling the policy making structures of the government. In a democracy, the existence of political parties is very essentials, owing to the important rules they play. The study position on Nigeria, political parties have not been able to perform the desired role in sustaining our democracy due to incessant inter and intra parties crisis that usually characterize political parties in Nigeria theoretical method has been used to appreciate the issues of political parties as it affect democracy in Nigeria political parties is as a result of the study therefore recommended for dedicated and truly nationalistic leadership at all levels of our social- political re- engineering and social mobilization as bases for building elite consensus on crucial national question. When achieved, reforming Nigeria parties for greater productivity can be attained.
                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page: ----------------------------------------------------------- i
Certificate: -----------------------------------------------------------ii
Dedication: ----------------------------------------------------------iii
Abstract    : -----------------------------------------------------------iv
Table of contents: --------------------------------------------------v
1.1  Background to the study ---------------------------------------------1
1.2 Statement of the problem --------------------------------------------3
1.3 Objectives of the study -----------------------------------------------4
1.4 Research propositions ------------------------------------------------5
1.5 Significant of the study ---------------------------------------------5-6
1.6 Scope and limitation of the study ----------------------------------6
1.7 Research methodology ----------------------------------------------7
1.8 Definition of concept ------------------------------------------------8
1.9 Organization of the study--------------------------------------------10

2.1 Literature Reviews -----------------------------------------------------11
2.1.1 Democracy -----------------------------------------------------------11-12
2.1.2 Political Party ------------------------------------------------------12-15
2.1.3 Democracy and political parties ----------------------------------15-18
2.2 Theoretical frameworks -------------------------------------------------19-25 

3.1 Pre-independent political parties in Nigeria---------------------- 26-30
3.2 Post- independence and First Republic
Political parties and democracy-----------------------------------------31-36
3.3 The second republic political
Party democratic experience----------------------------------------------37-41
3.4 The aborted third republic
Political experiment---------------------------------------------------------42-46

4.1 Political parties and democracy 1999-2007-----------------------47
4.2 political parties and democracy 2007- 2010-----------------------51
4.3 Political parties and democracy 2010- 2015----------------------56
4.4 The consequences of political parties
Challenge to Nigeria Democracy---------------------------------------60
5.1 Summary -------------------------------------------------------------65
5.2 Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------66
5.3 Recommendation -----------------------------------------------------68

                                             CHAPTER ONE
1.1  Background 
To begin with, the acceptability of the democratic system of government is based on the nation that it guarantees the participation of ‘the citizens in the decision making process. In fact, the levels of citizen’s participation determine to which one cans label democracy, majority rules. As noted by Agbaje (1999) democracy connote be concerned in theory or created in practice without the creation, recognisation, encouragement and expansion of the opportunities in the process.
 Political parties are indispensable institution of democratic process. Indeed sustainable democracy is unthinkable without a viable political parties system. In an ideal setting, political parties basically are expected to serve as a formidable democratization force by articulating and aggregating public opinion and interest; engendering popular participation and promoting political education and national integration (Wanan, 2014).
Billy (1973), was of the view that by promoting the virtues, political parties can contributes overtly to the regard a polity can be said to be politically stable when and if there is a congruence between the constitution and the regulatory rules of the system, such that changes within the action – set, either in terms of the realignment of forces in the salt, or its configuration, can be made to follow from and conform with the regulative rules of the system. However Agbaja (1999) argued also that, indeed, political stability and sustenance of democracy is coterminous with political order and depend on the relationship between of political participation and the level of political institutionalization which can be measure in terms of maintenance. Civil order, legitimacy and government effectiveness.
According to Omotola (2012) the level of institutionalization of political parties and their institutional strengths are therefore, directly correlated to their ability to perform these and related functional and by extension, to the strengths of democracy, if well institutionalization political parties can serve as a set. Of mediating institutions through which differences in ideals, interests and perceptions of political problems at a given time can be managed. When the reverse is the case, the democratic project and the general system stand the risk of perversion and or out right erosion or collapse. Jega (2012) posit that political parties are very important institution or agencies in democracy modern democracies cannot function without political parties. According to the scholar they serve. As the plat forms for interest aggregation and interest representation  in completive electoral polities, indeed they serves as organizing platforms for electoral contests.
Politics can best be defined as the science and art of governance. This means the knowledge of how to govern society in the best Manner possible. History has show case various forms of governance.  This includes monarchy, federalism, military colonialism, oligarchy, anarchy, bureaucracy and democracy. Democracy, of all this has been able to survival till the present time and highly appreciated as a way of moderating entrance personalization of political power (Olamosu, 2008) 
The practice of democracy in Nigeria is still in its infancy. Even though we have historical accounts of popular democracy being practiced in solve of our pre- colonial communities like afikpo and arochukwu in Igbo land. But all these were eroded with colonial rule. That exercised the use of force, militarism when in actual fact democracy is said to be in practices in there parent country. Britain the fact remains that this country was among to be practicing different form of government apart from democracy in territories her colonized. In theory, these colonialists did lay claim. To democracy but in practice it was clear that the regimes had features of military than democracy. Most of the colonial officers in Nigeria for instance were either serving military officers or retired officers. Probably it may be argued this was the reason it was best described as colonial rule (oluwide, 1993)
      After colonial rule, when Nigeria achieves her independence in 1960, attempts five years, October 1, 1960 January 15, 1960 before another form of government, direct military rule came to power in Nigeria. Military rule has been described as an aberration in power held its way and forced its self on Nigeria people for twenty- nine (29) years of fifty-six years of Nigeria as an independent country (Olamosu, 2008).
       Taking account of Nigeria historical circumstances, Obadan and Bello- Imam ( 2004 ) contend that democratic governance demand from the common man a certain level of character, rational conduct and active participation in governance; the intelligent understanding of public affairs, independent judgment and unselfish devolution to public interest. Agbaje (1999) in consonance with Obadan and Bello- Imam observe that political parties are essentials mechanism in a democratic government as its helps in stabilizing the institutional device not only for representation, but also for conflict management. These afore mention attributes of political parties do not characterize political parties in Nigeria and are not instrument for conflict management, political tolerance, unselfish devolution to public interest and stabilization of the institutional device. They are used for promoting rancor, crash opportunism, lack of trust between and among party members, selfish ambitions for political power on who get what, when and how. In this way they have not been able to contribute much for the sustenance of democracy in Nigeria.
     It is in view of the above background that the research work examine democracy and the challenge of political parties in Nigeria: an examination of the fourth republic, with the intent of providing stakeholder with necessary information that would help assiduously to understand the intrigues, issues and the character of political parties in Nigeria as while as providing stable democratic governance in the country.
1.2   Statement of Problem
Political parties are important institutional component of liberal democracy and successful electoral machination and processes. Parties produce the candidates, set the parameters of issues and political appends within which elections are to be contested and are furthermore expected to perform these duties from one election to another.  There are twenty five (25) registered political parties present in Nigeria. One common denominator of their political parties are there weakness when compared to the political parties of the first and second republic. Fifteen years after the return to democratic governance, despite the fact that democratic process as enjoy uninterrutpion from no quarters.
 It is therefore very necessary to unearth the reasons for this weakness of these parties, culminating into challenge of democracy. The reason this weakness can be traced to the recent political history of the country whereby the state has been weakened beyond reasonable doubt. For this reason, the first three registered political parties that were creation of the state, (PDP, AD, and APP) in the real sense of it cannot be strong than the  state that created it.
For instance it clear   that PDP was a creation of amalgam of many political trends of the same orientation – military, conservative politicians, degenerate progressive and opportunistic trend of pass progressive movement. What informs the coming together of these seemingly divergent political trends is there desperate attempt to capture power at the centre by all means possible, and they did hold the power for fifteen years.
Same goes for APP later metamorphose to ANPP, and then brake away faction gives birth to CPC. Also, the AD, change seal between CAN, CPC, ANPP and seal between CAN, CPC, NNPP and a faction of APGA to form the present ruling all progressive congress (APC) that took power from the PDP in the last general election. One thing that was set before this political party’s withered determination to control government at the centre. It is obvious that political parties in Nigeria and their entire members come together not of democratic principle but largely as a means of sharing the loot of public resources.
According to he  electoral reform committees in 2008, it stated that over the years  the politicians  have become more desperate and daring  in taking and retain my political power, more reckless and greedy in there use and abuse of power, and more intolerant of opposition criticism and efforts at displacing them. The electorate seen its hopes dashed with each set of elections has come to believe that politician lack the will to use state power to transform the lives of ordinary citizens. This loss of confidence in government by the electorate is the in government by the electorate is the threat to our democratic government.
It is in view of the above scenario that, this study will attempt to address the following tentative research questions:
                                               I.            What is the rational behind the formation of political parties in Nigeria?
                                            II.            What are the problems of democratic practice in Nigeria?
                                         III.            To what extent has challenges of political parties hinder democratic dividends in Nigeria?
                                        IV.            Has political parties been able to understanding the real essence of democratic government: in term s of equality, fairness, justice accountabilities and transparency?
                                           V.            To what extent has the Nigerian mass been involved in the formation o political parties?
                                        VI.            How has democracy and election energy been of benefit or affected the Nigerian masses?

1.3 Objectives of the Study
In spite of the above research assumptions the study has the following research objective to achieve and these are as followings:
i.                    To examine and identify the extent in which political parties in the fourth republic has been able to make significant contribution to Nigeria democratic.
ii.                 To examine the significant contribution of democratic to Nigeria polity, economic  and  socially
iii.              To examine the obstacles pose to democracy in Nigeria as a result of political parties activities.
iv.              To suggest possible ways that could strengthen political parties’ ambitions for maximum democratic impact in Nigeria.
1.4 Research Propositions
In an attempt to solve the research problems posed in this study, some research propositions were posited. There propositions which are tentative speculative statement include the following:
i.       political  parties  has  not enhanced the development of democracy in Nigeria  unable
ii.     the formation of unviable political  parties has  weaklings the democratic virtues in Nigeria fourth republic
iii.  democracy remains the best form of government that allows form  participation and political  stability in Nigeria fourth republic
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The significance of this research work is to duly carefully study the challenge pose to democracy as a result of political party’s activities in the fourth republic.  Also the significance of this research work will enlighten the general public on the following:
a)      To evaluate the essence of political parties
b)    To show to politician the need to embrace peaceful – co- existence during and after election.
c)     Assist scholars, student and researcher on the are of  democracy  and political parties in Nigeria
d)    To bring to light the state of the Nigerian democratic status and encourage the masses to imbibe the will proactiveness.
e)     Serve as a reference point to policy makers the need to ensure peaceful transition of democratic governance in Nigeria.
1.6 Scope and Limitation  Of the Study
This study is designed to examine democracy and the challenge of political parties Nigerian: An examination of the fourth Republic within the period of 199-2015. The scope of the study is Nigeria fourth republic. However, example and reference are drawn from the First Republic, second and third republic which share common historical experience with the fourth republic.
As in any social science and scientific research this study has some limitation. This research work is limited by a number of factors and these include the following constraints which made it a bit different to travel round to some important places like political parties national sectarian for the source of information. Another limitation time frame a combination research work of this magnitude needs ample secondary source otherwise known as content analysis. The sources   of this work would basically be derived form.
1.7  Definition Of  Concepts
Certain concept were used is the study which may be ambiguous, so it will be of paramount to clarify these terms at this point:
Democracy: This is a firm of popular government that allow for popular                          participation of people.
Politics: This entails the process of interest, power sharing and                                    articulation among political actors
Elite: This demotes a group of people in a society who are powerful and                have a lots if influence politically economically socials etc.
Development: Development is a progressive movement or change in                           quantity and quali8ties
Goal: an expected and result that satisfy one interest.
Political Parties: This is an association of men and woman who                                            come together to contest for political power through                                 election and form government.
Election: This is the process of contesting for position where two people                         via for leadership position. Election allowed people to                               choose their representative in government or otherwise
Violence: This can be seen as the total breakdown of law and order that                        result in destruction of life and properties
1.8 Organization Of The Study
The study is organized into fire chapters the first chapter deals with the study, while the second chapter deals with basic introduction of the study, while the second chapter receives the existing literature relevant to the study and Theoretically framework. Chapter three focus on the overview of Nigeria political parties and democratic progress.
       Chapter four is basically in democracy and political parties in the fourth republic.
      Chapter five is about summary conclusion and recommendations.

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