MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS FOR ECONOMICS TEACHERS AND ITS IMPLICATION FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL CURRICULUM IN ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCIL FCT ABUJA
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page - - - - - - - - - - iii
Dedication - - - - - - - - - - iv
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - v
Certification - - - - - - - - - vi
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - - vii
Declaration - - - - - - - - - - v
Certification - - - - - - - - - vi
Acknowledgements - - - - - - - - vii
1.1 Background to the Study - - - - - - - 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem - - - - - - 10
1.3 Purpose of the Study - - - - - - - 11
1.4 Research Questions - - - - - - - 12
1.5 Hypotheses - - - - - - - - 14
1.6 Delimitation of the Study - - - - - - 15
1.7 Significance of Study - - - - - - - 15
1.8 Operational Definition of Term - - - - - - 17
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 20
2.2 Theoretical Framework - - - - - - - 21
2.2.1 Hierarchy of Human Needs or the Need Theory - - - - 21
2.2.2 Need for Achievement Theory (NACH) - - - - 25
2.2.3 Concept of Motivational Factors - - - - - 27
2.2.4 Meaning and Definition of Economics - - - - 32
2.2.5 Relevance of Teaching Economics in Secondary Schools in
Federal capital Territory - - - - - - - 35
2.2.6 The Prospect of Learning Economics in Public and Private
Secondary Schools. - - - - - - - 38
2.2.7 Motivational Factors for Economics Teachers in Federal Capitals
Territory - - - - - - -- - - 42
2.3 Implication for Motivating Economics Teachers - - - 64
2.4 Concept of Curriculum- - - - - - -- - 70
2.5 Definition of the Term Curriculum - - - - - - 73
2.4.1 Structure of the Senior Secondary School Curriculum- - - 49
2.5 The Goals and Objectives of Economics Curriculum- - - 83
2.5.1 Roles of Curriculum Materials in Curriculum Implementation - - 86
2.5.2 The Implementation of Economics Curriculum in
Secondary Schools - - - - - - - 87
2.5.3 Definition of Curriculum Implementation- - - - - 91
2.5.4 Curriculum Implementation as a Change Process - - - - 93
2.5.5 Types of Curriculum Change - - - - - - - 61
2.5.6 Individual Involved in Curriculum Implementation - - - 63
2.6 Teachers - - - - - - - 63
2.7 Students - - - - - - - 66
2.8 Principals Headmasters - - - - - - 66
2.9 Parents - - - - - - - 68
2.10 Implementing Curriculum in the Classroom - - - - 69
2.11 Review of Pervious Studies - - - - - - - 73
2.12 Summary - - - - - - - 76
3.1 Introduction - - - - - - - - 80
3.2 Research Design - - - - - - - - 80
3.3. Population of the Study - - - - - - - 80
3.4 Sample size and sampling Technique - - - - - 81
3.5 Instrument for Data Collection - - - - - - 81
3.6 Instrumentation - - - - - - - - 82
3.7 Validity and Reliability of the instrument - - - - 83
3.8 Data Collection Procedure - - - - - - 83
3.9 Method of data Analysis - - - - - - 83
References - - - - - - - - 85
Appendices - - - - - - - -
1.1 Background to the Study
There are lots of reasons why people are motivated to work, while people do work for money, many others work because they love their jobs and because they want a sense of fulfillment. Others work because they want to feel accomplished in a certain field or be recognized for their performance or be secured in their job.
Emphasis therefore is on what induces behavior and how far those could go in elucidating the desired change in the economics teachers’ behavior and its implication for the implementation of Secondary School curriculum in some selected Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory. The theory of Needs insists that workers will perform best in so far as his or her needs are being met. The expectancy theory assumes that workers’ belief in desirable outcomes such as attractiveness of reward influence their choice to put in more efforts. While the two factor theories assumes that as a matter of pre-regulated standard, conduciveness of work context, factors such as salaries, company rules and regulations, supervisory behaviours, relationships, conditions of service are as a matter of quality assurance enough.
Education is considered as the most valuable tool for human building that is why government recognizes education as the greatest investment that the nation can make to bring about civilization, modernization, development and socio economic progress.
Education as in organization also has always been accepted as a vital tool for national development, very serious and pertinent worries have been expressed about the state of our educational system. There are worries that despite the enormous sacrifice which has already been made on government policies towards the improvement of the lot of the Nigeria Economics teachers; it has not significantly achieved their intended original goals and objectives Faajir, (2004).
Economics teachers are indispensable figures in the success of all educational activities. The 21st century is characterized by advancement in Economic education. In this, every nation is striving to achieve economic, scientific and technological breakthrough with their environment. Thus the teaching of economics in Public and Private Secondary Schools is becoming more demanding and activity oriented. The youths are taught economics science in relation to their environments of living and for economic growth. Achievement of the development and growth through economics science and technology requires qualitative economics science teaching both in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory. In other words, for Nigerian to realize accelerated development in the 21st Century, She needs qualitative Economics education. The realization of the above development and growth depends on the quality and quantity economics education received by the future leaders of the nation. It is clear evidence that achieving quality economics education depends largely on the effectiveness and efficient of the Economics teachers in some selected Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory.Senior Secondary Education is planned for human resource development. It is a preparatory ground for human development, where career abilities are groomed and potential and talents discovered and energized. The quality and quantity of economic education received by the students gear towards developing scientists, technologies engineers, and economist.
Motivation helps the employee (Economics teachers) meet his needs and provides him with feeling of satisfaction, a factor found to have a significant direct relationship to his continuing to work for the organization (school). In a situation where economics teachers feel that they are not adequately regarded or that the conditions of services of the organization are not adequately enough to justify the demands made them, this creates low morale, which consequently affect productivity (students result).
In Udeozor, (2000) rightly noted that no educational plan, programme, innovation or activities can ever sustain successfully without adequate number of highly motivated or dedicated economics teachers. The planners, therefore must consider those factors that are likely to motivate the economics teachers and plan them along. She further stressed that a process of motivating economics teachers to work must lay emphasis on such issues as salaries, wages, job security, attainable objectives, increased responsibility, job enrichment, promotion, increased authority; proper accountability and improve human relations Udeozor, (2004). Therefore, for any organization like school to get the best out of her economics teachers, the need for motivation cannot be overlooked as it brings out the best and ensures efficiency and effectiveness for teachers as the hubs, the key to the success or failure of any educational system.
Economics teachers on the other hand are teachers who have acquired professional degree of learning and special training in economics. They are teachers who have acquired higher intellectual training that are beneficial to students and mankind directly or indirectly. As economics is regarded as a science because it adopts scientific approach in its method of study, so economics teacher must be a specialist in the field of economics education.
Therefore the aim of teaching economics in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council in Federal Capital Territory is to equip students to learn how to learn, and to teach them how to think, how to make observations and testing of facts from which generalizations about human behaviour are made. To achieve these, the economics teacher must be competent in the area of his specialization, quantity and quality. Facilities should be available and used for the teaching and learning process, the curriculum should reflect useful syllabus, content, topics, materials necessary for the teaching of economics in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory.
The objectives of education vary from society to society, based on the problems and needs of the particular society, but generally, education is a process of changing the behaviour patterns of people. Behaviour in this sense means the way we will change the learner in his thinking, his feelings and his overt actions. The strategies to make these changes possible in the learner and in the society are embedded in a thing called curriculum.
Curriculum is a broad term meant to include all the experiences of the learner while under the guidance and direction of the school. These include academic and non-academic, vocational, emotional and recreational activities from which the learner will receive his experience. It is the larger umbrella embracing the syllabus, scheme of work, and lesson notes. The curriculum is the totality of learning experiences. But planning a curriculum on the other hand involves several expertise including subject specialists, education specialist and classroom teachers.
Of special focus to us is the fundamental factor of the implication of motivational factors for economics teachers and the implementation of curriculum in Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory.In another development, a document on Dakar framework for Action (2000) rightly pointed out that there is need for:
“The pre-eminent role of economics teachers as well as other educational personnel in providing quality basic education needs to be recognized and developed to optimize their contribution. This must entail measures to respect economics teacher’s union rights and professional freedoms and to improve their working conditions and status – (p. 20)
The working condition in every sphere of life in Nigeria including those of economics teachers have become so debased that most individuals cannot enjoy their work leading to tension and frustration, the economics teachers are crucial at every point in our education process because the quality of any education depends on the quality of its economics teachers. There is then, the need to motivate economics teachers in order to produce the desired scientific, technology and economist educational results. Without adequate motivation of economics teachers, the general school activities will be hampered as the teachers will be playing nonchalant attitudes to their work.Jegede, (2002) affirmed this when he noted that the teaching of economics as a profession in Nigeria has suffered a number of debilitating blows in the recent past, some of which include lack of motivation and societal respect and recognition, non or late payment of salaries which have resulted in the serious aversion to teaching among a host of others.
Contributing, Dibia (2008) opines that economics teachers job satisfaction is an index for quality assurance in education, apparently, motivation strategies such as conferences, seminars and workshop, in-service training programme, welfare packages (housing and car loans) prompt payment of salaries and other remunerations are pertinent to improve economics teacher’s proficiency.In some of the selected Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory Abuja, It has been observed that there is a decline in the General performance of economics teachers in Public and Private Secondary Schools. An interaction with some of the teachers revealed some factors likely to bring about this to include:-
1. The salary of the teachers is irregular and inadequate.
2. The promotion policy of the state is irregular.
3. Welfare incentives available are inadequate
4. The working environment is not conducive
5. No opportunity for personal growth.
6. Interpersonal relations between principals and the economics teachers are not cordial.
The above problems needs to be addressed because, there is a non – challant attitude of economics teachers to school activities. The Students are grossly affected in their learning and thus the educational objectives and curriculum objectives are not met or implemented. These will lead to the falling standard of academic performance of students in schools and college.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This project is centered on the implication of motivating economics teachers and how to implement economics as a subject in the curriculum in some selected Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory.
An interaction with some economics teachers in some selected Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, revealed that their salaries are not paid on time and at the same time grossly inadequate to effectively meet their needs; others are poor health care services, slow and bottlenecks in training and promotion etc.
It has been observed that a large number of economics teachers in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory, exhibit behavioural tendencies that suggest the prevalence of some level of discontentment, dissatisfaction and even frustration over such personnel management policies as promotion, training and general welfare. The display of such negative altitude has obvious adverse effect on the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness. The research tends to deal much on such motivational factors as salaries; job satisfaction, availability of teaching/learning materials, performance appraisal, job security, opportunity for advancement/promotion, improve human relations and workers’ benefits. The researcher intends to find out whether the above listed motivational factors are attainable in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory Public and Private Secondary Schools, if not, what are the problems? And what does it take to ginger the economics teachers to attain high productivity, and how to successfully implement economics as a subject in the curriculum in some selected Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory.
1.3 Purpose for the Study
The purpose of this work is to examine the motivational factors for economics teachers and its negative or positive implication for effective implementation of Secondary School Curriculum in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory which can be utilized to attain their efficiency in their schools, and promote academic performance of students. Specifically, the objectives of the study are to:-
1. Identify motivational factors for economic teacher in both public and private secondary in Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory
2. To highlight the types of motivation economic teachers except from their employer in public and private secondary schools in Federal capital territory Abuja
3. Find out the types of motivation economic teachers enjoy in public and private secondary school in federal capital territory Abuja.
4. To examine if academic qualification of economic teachers is a factors for performance in public and private secondary school in federal capital territory Abuja
1.4 Research Questions
This study sought answers to the following research question
1. What are the motivation factors for economic teachers in both public and private secondary schools in municipal Area council, federal capital territory.
2. What are the types of motivation economic teachers except from their employer in public and private secondary school in municipal Area council, Federal capital territory
3. What are the types of motivation economic teachers enjoy in public and private secondary school in municipal Area council, Federal capital territory.
4. What if academic qualification of economic teachers a factors for performance in public and private secondary schools in municipal area council, federal capital territory.
The study intends to test the following hypotheses at 0.03 level of significance
1. There is no significance deference between the factors the motivation economic teachers in both public and private secondary schools in municipal area council capital territory
2. There is no significance difference between the type of motivation economic teachers expects from there employers in public and private secondary schools in municipal area council, federal capital; territory
3. There is no significance difference between the type of motivation economic teachers enjoys in public and private secondary school in municipal area council, federal capital; territory
4. there is no significance difference between academic qualification of economic teachers a factors of economic teacher in public and private secondary school in municipal area council, federal capital; territory
1.6 Delimitation of the Study
This survey involved the identification of factors of motivation for economics teachers and its implication for the implementation of Secondary School curriculum in some selected Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory.
The motivational factors considered here include salary, job satisfaction, and availability of teaching/learning materials, performance appraisal, job security and opportunity for advancement/promotion, improved human relations and workers’ benefits.
Geographically, this study will cover Public and Private Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory. Economics teachers in both Public and Private Secondary Schools in Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory will be used for the study.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The success of any institution depends to a great deal on the performance of its members. The success cannot be achieved if the workers or economics teachers (in this case) are dissatisfied, disgruntled, and ill-motivated. The study will therefore be significant to many people, government, household, students not only the economics teachers. The school administrators (Principals) will find the content of this study as a useful guide on how to motivate the economics teachers under their management. It is hoped that the use of incentives as encouraged in this study can help keep the interest of economics teachers so that they can perform their teaching functions efficiently and effectively. This research work will help in the development of the global economy both in micro and macro level.
It will also enhance the implication of all the motivational factors that will energize the teaching of economics. It will create a good atmosphere for the implementation of economics as a subject in the curriculum in some selected Public and Private Senior Secondary Schools in Abuja Municipal Area Council, Federal Capital Territory. The researcher hopes that the study will improve the growth of economics activities, behavior, changes in testing / observation in individuals and in natural sciences. The study will highlight social relationship between economics teachers and students for effective and efficient academic performance, if motivational factors are implemented. Finally, it is hoped that the study will bring out lapses in personnel management and provide the Secondary School Management Board(SSMB), ministry of education and employers of labour the tools on how best to improve the working conditions of their staff (economics teachers) for effective performance.
1.8 Definition of Terms
In this study, certain terms (concepts) have been used. They require explicit operational definitions to clarify their usage in this study.
Motivational Factors:-Motivational factors are those factors or elements that are supposed to be given to the teachers for encouragement in order to boost their input and productivity. These factors operate within the school system, and which, if not made available to the teachers could hamper performance, cause stress, discontentment and frustration which would eventually reduce classroom effectiveness.
Academic Qualification:- This entails the level of education obtained or acquired by the people, individuals, students, teachers after their educational professional training.
Economics:- Is a science which studies human behavior as a relationship between end and scarce means which have alternative uses.
Teachers:- Teachers are the ones who teaches or instructs. They are those who take teaching as an occupation or profession. It is a calling where one requires a special training in other to be engaged and to earn a living. It is the teacher who is representative of society’s interest in the education of its youths.
Teaching:- Teaching is an art and a science of imparting knowledge to people. It is an art because it involves guiding, directing and stimulating learning. It is a science because it involves the processing of a body of specialized knowledge.
Curriculum:- Curriculum is the totality of activities carried out under auspices of a school in response to societal demands. Curriculum consists of the continuous chains of act necessary for translating educational goals into core activities, materials and observable behavioral change.
Implication:- A possible effect or result of an action or a decision.
Implementation:- To carry out a decision, changes, policies, reforms of a new system.
Generalization:- To use a particular set of facts or ideas in order to form an opinion that is considered valid for a different situation. It is also a general statement that is based on only a few facts or example.
IF YOU WANT THE REMAINING OR INTERESTED (CHAPTER 1-5) THIS PROJECT TOPIC CALL:08134232272,08073814436